# 1.3. Delay Coupling¶

In this tutorial, we will go through the different options you have to define delay-coupled dynamical systems in PyRates. As an example, we will use a model of interconnected leaky integrator units, the evolution equations of which are given by

with individual rates , a global time scale and coupling weights . This model does not include any delays in the coupling yet. Below, we will go through the two main options for introducing delay-coupling to this model.

## 1.3.1. References¶

1(1,2)

H. Smith. (2011) An Introduction to Delay Differential Equations with Applications to the Life Sciences. Springer, New York.

2(1,2)

R. Gast, R. Gong, H. Schmidt, H.G.E. Meijer, T.R. Knoesche (2021) On the Role of Arkypallidal and Prototypical Neurons for Phase Transitions in the External Pallidum. Journal of Neuroscience 41(31): 6673-6683.

As preparation, lets import all required packages and load the leaky integrator model into PyRates.

# external imports
import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

# pyrates imports
from pyrates import CircuitTemplate, NodeTemplate, clear

# node definition
li = NodeTemplate.from_yaml("model_templates.base_templates.tanh_node")


To get an idea of how the model behaves without delays, lets connect two leaky integrators into a circuit and simulate its dynamics.

# define connection weights
J_21 = 5.0
J_12 = -5.0

# define circuit model
net = CircuitTemplate(name="nodelays", nodes={"p1": li, "p2": li},
edges=[("p1/tanh_op/m", "p2/li_op/m_in", None, {"weight": J_21}),
("p2/tanh_op/m", "p1/li_op/m_in", None, {"weight": J_12})])

# define simulation parameters
T = 10.0
dt = 1e-5
dts = 1e-3
times = np.linspace(0, T, int(np.round(T/dt)))
inp = 1.0/(1.0 + np.exp(10.0*np.sin(2.0*np.pi*0.7*times)))

# plot input
plt.plot(times, inp)
plt.title("Input")
plt.show()

# perform simulation
res = net.run(simulation_time=T, step_size=dt, sampling_step_size=dts, vectorize=True, in_place=False,
inputs={"p1/li_op/u": inp}, outputs={"p1": "p1/li_op/r", "p2": "p2/li_op/r"})

# plot the results
plt.plot(res)
plt.legend(res.columns.values)
plt.title("LI Signals: No Delays")
plt.show()

clear(net)


We can see that the system dynamics mostly follow the periodic input. Lets see how they are affected by the introduction of delays.

### 1.3.1.1. Option 1: Using Delayed Differential Equations¶

PyRates allows for the implementation of delayed differential equation (DDE) systems. In the case of our exemplary model, we would like to implement a leaky integrator system with the following evolution equations:

where are scalar delays specific for the connection from to . This can be achieved by using the delay keyword to define for an edge.

# define delays
d_21 = 0.2
d_12 = 0.3

# define circuit model with discrete delays
net = CircuitTemplate(name="dde", nodes={"p1": li, "p2": li},
edges=[("p1/tanh_op/m", "p2/li_op/m_in", None, {"weight": J_21, "delay": d_21}),
("p2/tanh_op/m", "p1/li_op/m_in", None, {"weight": J_12, "delay": d_12})]
)

# perform simulation
res = net.run(simulation_time=T, step_size=dt, sampling_step_size=dts, vectorize=True, in_place=False,
inputs={"p1/li_op/u": inp}, outputs={"p1": "p1/li_op/r", "p2": "p2/li_op/r"})

# plot the results
plt.plot(res)
plt.legend(res.columns.values)
plt.title("LI Signals: Scalar Delays")
plt.show()

clear(net)


It seems like the addition of discrete delays led to the emergence of a stable periodic solution, the frequency of which differs from the driving frequency. Note that the definition of DDEs does not permit the use of adaptive step-size solvers for most backends at the moment. An exception is the Julia backend, which can be used in combination with the option solver=’julia_dde’ in order to solve a DDE system via any adaptive step-size algorithm available via DifferentialEquations.jl. Alternatively, it is possible to generate the run function for a DDE system via any backend and employ third-party software packages to solve it. An example of that can be found in the model analysis gallery.

### 1.3.1.2. Option 2: Using Distributed Delays¶

As an alternative, you can define distributed delays in PyRates as convolutions of the source variable of an edge with a gamma kernel. This procedure is explained in detail in 1 and has been applied to a system of coupled QIF neurons in 2. In our specific example, this would change the model equations as follows

where is the convolution operator and and are the parameters of the gamma kernel . In PyRates, such a convolution can simply be added by specifying an additional keyword spread for a given edge definition:

# define variances
v_21 = 0.1
v_12 = 0.2

# define circuit model with distributed delays
net = CircuitTemplate(name="gamma", nodes={"p1": li, "p2": li},
edges=[("p1/tanh_op/m", "p2/li_op/m_in", None, {"weight": J_21, "delay": d_21, "spread": v_21}),
("p2/tanh_op/m", "p1/li_op/m_in", None, {"weight": J_12, "delay": d_12, "spread": v_12})]
)


In that case, delay and spread are interpreted as the mean and variance of the gamma kernel that the source variable should be convoluted with, respectively. These quantities are related to and via and . In addition, PyRates automatically uses the linear chain trick described in 1 and 2 to translate the convolution operation into a set of coupled ODEs that will be added to the model equations. Let’s see how these changes to our model affected the dynamics.

# perform simulation
res = net.run(simulation_time=T, step_size=dt, sampling_step_size=dts, vectorize=True, in_place=False,
inputs={"p1/li_op/u": inp}, outputs={"p1": "p1/li_op/r", "p2": "p2/li_op/r"}, solver="scipy")

# plot the results
plt.plot(res)
plt.legend(res.columns.values)
plt.title("LI Signals: Distributed Delays")
plt.show()

clear(net)


We can see that the period of the periodic solution of the model dynamics were sped up slightly by the addition of distributed delays in comparison to scalar delays.

Total running time of the script: ( 0 minutes 0.000 seconds)

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